what is water pollution ?

Water Pollution Facts, Types, Causes and Effects of Water Pollution
Water pollution

What Is Water pollution ; 
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies Most villages, towns, cities and industrial towns are located in the vicinity of the source of water . Because water is the main necessity of life. water pollution is one of the most serious ecological threats 

What Is Water Pollution ?

  • Pollution is being generated due to the continuous flow of waste from densely populated and industries.
  • The two main sources of water are underground and earth (pond, lake, river, sea).
  • Various types of substances are easily washed away in water.
  • Therefore, if any external material collects or dissolves in water, it changes the physical and chemical properties of water.
  • This type of polluted water is harmful for health.

The main sources of water pollutants are:

(i) Household detergents
(ii) Sewage and other wastes
(ii) Industrial wastes
(iv) Agricultural wastes and chemical fertilizers
(v) Radioactive wastes

 causes of water pollution

Water Pollution Facts, Types, Causes and Effects of Water Pollution
Water Pollution

(i) Household detergents:

  • Different types of soaps, surf, vim etc. are used to clean laundry and utensils in homes.
  • These scavengers come out of the houses and collect pollution in ponds, rivers through drains and cause pollution.
  • Nitrates, phosphates, ammonia compounds and alkylbenzene sulfonate (alkyl benzene sulphonate = ABA) are collected in water by these detergents.
  • High amounts of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen cause algae to grow more, this is called water bloom.
  • O2 is needed for decomposition after death of algae.
  • Due to this, O2 starts to decrease in water and death of living beings in water.
  • This process continuously reduces the water in the reservoir, but the amount of organic matter increases. This is called eutrophication

(ii) Sewage:

  • Due to increase in population, the excreta from the cities excretes excessive amount of urine, garbage and waste material and pollutes the water.
  • Sewage contains high amount of organic matter and contains inorganic phosphorus, ammonia, suspended solids, phenol, heavy metals, cyanide and oil etc.
  • Excessive amounts of sewage cause a large population of decomposers or microorganisms and their respiration begins to dissolve oxygen dissolved in the water, but the amount of CO2 increases.
  • Due to the lack of O2, animals and plants living in the water become dead and odor is produced in the reservoir. And the chances of causing infectious diseases increases.
  • BOD test is done to measure water pollution
  • BOD of polluted water (BOD = Biochemical Oxygen demand) are high.
  • BOD increases with the amount of pollutants. This is the required amount of O2 for decomposition by bacteria.
  • The BOD of clean drinking water is less than Ippm.
  • For water pollution, fish like Daphnia and Trout are sensitive to fish.

(ii) Industrial Waste:

  • Water Pollution Facts, Types, Causes and Effects of Water Pollution
    Water Pollution
  • Waste materials from various types of industries like fertilizer, petrochemical, oil refining, paper, fiber, rubber, medicine and plastic etc. flow into the water and pollute the reservoirs.
  • These waste materials include dust, coal, acids, alkalies, cyanide, phenol, gink, mercury, copper, ferrous, salts, oil, paper, rubber and hot water etc.
  • Mercury is produced in water from chlorine and caustic soda industries. Mercury reaches human beings through water in the food chain. Due to which the nervous system is disorganized and lethel for health.
  • The incident in Minamata Bay, Japan, was caused by mercury. Many humans died after eating fish from polluted water in the Gulf.
  • Waste glass has harmful effects on the digestive system and neuro muscles and central nervous system in humans.
  • Automation of steamers, steamers, contains mercury and lead which combine with water to form highly toxic methyl mercury.

(iv) Agricultural wastes and chemical fertilizers:

  • Presently, herbicides, weedicides, insecticidcs, pesticides and biocides are being used extensively to destroy pests that harm the crop. .
  • Simultaneously, chemical fertilizers like urea, phosphate, potash, etc. were used to increase fruit yield.
  • All these chemicals are causing pollution problems.

There are three types of chemicals used as pesticides and insecticides -

(A) Inorganic salts such as arsenic salts.
(B) DDT, Agenochlorine, Agenophosphate etc.
(C) Biochemistry with hormones and biological control.
  • Among these, the most intense pollutants are DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethanes) and Diphenyl polychlorinated diphenyle.
  • These chemicals continue to reach humans continuously through the food chain.
  • DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons are non-degradable compounds. These chemicals continue to collect plants and animals and reach humans along the food chain.
  • Therefore, these chemicals exhibit biological magnification.
  • Antipyretic (DDT) mutations in the reproductive cells of organisms and reduce the rate of photosynthesis in plants.
  • Weedicides divide more into 2,4-D, 2,4,5-7 cells to form tumor.

Effects of water pollution:

  • Due to lack of O2 in water, plants and animals die.
  • Typhoid, dysentery, jaundice and malaria diseases are caused by impure water.
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